Shaanxi governor grain road as a special northern governor grain road, it has what characteristics of the function?
Since ancient times, grain has been a necessity for the survival and development of feudal dynasties. No matter when, the operation of grain is heavy in both land passage and grain transport along the river. In the Song Dynasty, the transport has become a major official of the border, such as the heavy work of the song Dynasty.In the Tang Dynasty, there was a transfer to make the corresponding material operation, responsible for grain, salt and iron;There are both land access and canal transport along the river.In the Song Dynasty, transshipment envoys even became one of the leading officials of border control. For example, in the Two Song Dynasties, hebei transshipment envoys were in charge of grain transportation, taxation and other functions, and even had the position of personnel appointment within their jurisdiction.In the yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, transshipment was still a very important position, but its responsibilities were gradually reduced. In the Qing Dynasty, there were special transshipment envoys in salt administration.And the corresponding responsible for food has become the responsibility of the supervision of grain dao. the supervision of grain daowas established in the Ming Dynasty, at the beginning of the establishment, its organization was relatively perfect and clear, to the Qing Dynasty is more stable.From its official name above, can see its jurisdiction function, specialized management is the grain affairs of the provinces.Such a position can be seen as a plum job simply from the function it is responsible for.Food determines the rise and fall of a country in ancient times, so every year the government of the feudal dynasty has to spend a lot of money and manpower on food transportation. The famous Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, which spent a lot when it was dug, even consumed half of the national strength of the Sui Dynasty, solved the problem is food transportation.This shows how important the corresponding official position is for grain transportation.Different regions of the corresponding responsibility is also very different, for example, the southern region of the food control is mostly responsible for the food operation of the southern region, and the north has more different responsibilities, such as Shaanxi, as a special food control in the north, its various functions are also quite distinctive.A, du route for providing foodstuff, has a long history of du route for providing foodstuff is set up in Ming dynasty, the early years of the Ming dynasty, zhu yuanzhang cancel book province local system in yuan dynasty of the line, originally, the redevelopment of the thirteen is originally department is mainly responsible for the relevant local civil affairs, and du route for providing foodstuff is originally the dispatching institution, originally in politics, by the senate as a du route for providing foodstuff position.Feudal dynasties have always been the most important food, which is related to the survival of the country, but also the lifeblood of a country.The establishment of the supervision of grain road in the Ming Dynasty was the same. When it came to the Qing Dynasty, the supervision of grain road was still retained, but in the Qing Dynasty, in addition to the supervision of grain road, there were grain storage roads, because they were called the grain road, sometimes often confused.On the surface, the governor is only responsible for the operation of food, but it is affected by different regions, resulting in specific positions and specific power is different, and Shaanxi governor is a famous job on the local post, want to hold this position, it is difficult.In general, officials were divided into Beijing officials and local officials. The Beijing officials looked like high local officials, but in fact, there was little water in the soup. Most of them depended on their meager salary, and even lived very hard in the capital.The local officials looked tired, but in fact they were rich.Apart from these aspects, Shaanxi governor grain road is remembered by many officials, not only because it is linked with food, more is its military link, soldiers and horses are not moved, grain and grass first, military grain and general food transport is different, which is far from the general grain road can match.2, military arteries, northwest throat since ancient times, the central plains dynasty and the relationship between the western ethnic minority has been sometimes calm, sometimes, the size of the war, the same is true in the qing dynasty, the qing dynasty and the northern minorities, the western region have greatly small war, army logistics is the necessary premise of departure.Shaanxi is located at the key point of the throat. The Hexi Corridor is the military vital road between the Western Regions and the hinterland of the Central Plains. Shaanxi is the first place to arrive when leaving the Hexi Corridor to the east.Apart from the Wars between the Qing Dynasty and the four countries, such as Korea and Burma, the wars between the four ethnic minorities within the territory mainly included the pacification of Geerdan during the Kangxi period and the pacification of Lubuzangdanjin during the Yongzheng period.Qianlong period pacified the size and zhuo rebellion.So, the war between qing dynasty and the minority, mainly concentrated in the northwest region, so it highlights the important parts of the shaanxi du route for providing foodstuff, it may be said is a vital military, northwest throat, also in shaanxi overseers route for providing foodstuff and commissary in charge of collection and distribution, there is no war is mainly responsible for local ching and green food.This kind of work seems simple, but actually has a lot of officialdom knowledge, since ancient times, scholars met soldiers, is not clear.In the face of numerous eight flag army and green battalion soldiers, there are few people who can get down on this position. Different from the southern governor of grain, Shaanxi governor of grain on the one hand to be responsible for the raising and distribution of military grain, but also responsible for good relations with local garrison generals.Shaanxi overseers route for providing foodstuff about twenty mangoku amount of grain a year by year, including rice, millet, beans, wheat, etc., the issue of food down about 19 mangoku, such view, dating a mangoku surplus every year, and this one mangoku, according to the practice in the qing dynasty, report the need, has become a chief governor vessel route for providing foodstuff reservation.According to the price of grain in the Qing dynasty, it would be equivalent to about three million yuan today, and at the same time, understand that this three million yuan is legitimate income, not to be blamed by the emperor.However, this more than three million a year, ten thousand stone food can be overseer grain dao alone?In fact, it is almost impossible, because the annual cost of up and down is also a huge expense.Three, the upper and lower, the balance of officialdom this custom of filial piety superiors, in the whole ancient Chinese feudal dynasty are very common, let alone the governor of grain such a fat post, general officials were appointed to the governor of grain, before leaving the Capital to take office, the first dozen is the capital of the superior.Minister, minister, assistant minister need rbis, and plain code marks a price, this is the practice of officialdom that ensures before crowds, there will be no other situation, after its come to the place, things are much more needed, du route for providing foodstuff in shaanxi province, is located in the throat arteries and its important position, in addition to deal with the local military presence.Because of the high status of the eight Banners army in the early Qing Dynasty, most of them were Manchu nobles, so if you want to safely pass the period of supervising grain, you must keep good relations with them.Before distributing food every month, the governor needs to send samples to the barracks for inspection. If the general is not satisfied with deliberately making difficulties, the governor and his subordinate officials have to be next to each other. The generals of the Eight Flag Army can directly report to the central government and interfere.So the governor of grain dao to often go to and eight flag general good relations, every Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn festival and other festivals, and the general and the general lady’s birthday, to give congratulations, in addition to real money and silver, there are all kinds of expensive cloth, in addition, under the general, association also need to play, but relatively simple.This is the connection between shaanxi’s commissariat system and the army, which seems complicated, but it also stabilized the army to some extent. Generally speaking, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty did not object to this kind of arrangement between superiors and subordinates, but acquiesced in it, because it could stabilize the army and officials to a large extent and reduce unrest.In addition to being special in the military, the relationship between shaanxi governor and the local civil service system remained. It has been mentioned above that before leaving The capital, he had to take charge of various departments in the capital, which was still the case when he arrived at the local level. First of all, he had a relationship with his immediate superior, the governor.The governor is not only a boss of du route for providing foodstuff or local officials to the virtual head of the annual assessment, on the throne above, is the actor is bad, all in a word, the governor so dot is also a must for the governor, in addition, shaanxi as way of connecting the western region, every year many officials, entertaining work is responsible by du route for providing foodstuff.Shaanxi is a necessary place to go to Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan and other places, so there are a lot of official exchanges every year, these hospitality has also become a very important activity, because it is related to the face of the local government, so the officials in charge of grain are also dedicated to hospitality.This is mainly some of the transaction, in addition to this, the main job is to increment is not also fengshun fuxing year after year, had a good harvest, it is to say, if the encounter is clamped down, food collection is not enough, size of local official riot, army, the emperor also are not satisfied, around to upset people, also is by no means a good job.Conclusion shaanxi du route for providing foodstuff, appears to be a nice one, but are in fact some of the drudgery, overseers of the southern land route for providing foodstuff, stability, since to jiangnan is rich, a grain of rare big problems, combined with the jiangnan land of abundance, officials in oil and water is much higher than the north of shaanxi, so looks nice, but drudgery.Nominally only responsible for the collection of food, but the actual operation, up and down, reception, military food, are the responsibility of the food.And officials, but also have advantages and disadvantages, it is good to meet more tactful officials, if you meet officials who just want to get money, then during the governor of grain road, in addition to looting is useless, the final suffering is still the bottom of the people.The so-called, xing, the people bitter;Death, the people suffer, it is so, the greed of the ruler can not be satisfied, and pay for it is the bottom of the people, such a feudal dynasty, from top to bottom, in fact, are a pool of rotten water, decline and fall is inevitable.When a ruling group starts to pass the buck to each other and collect money without restraint, its internal disintegration is inevitable.